GENERAL BATTERY INFORMATION
How battery’s work
Motorcycle batteries contain individual cells, each one produces just over two volts.
Six-volt batteries have three cells and twelve volt batteries have six cells. Each
cell has stacks of lead plates which are alternately charged positive and negative.
The individual plates are separated by an insulator usually made from treated paper
or fibreglass. The lead plates in each cell are connected to each other, positive
to positive and negative to negative. Each group is then connected to those in the
next cell in series (positive to negative).
The clear fluid inside batteries (conventional, high performance and maintenance
free) is called electrolyte, a mixture of water and sulphuric acid. In Gel Nano
batteries this electrolyte is a gel rather than a liquid. The chemical reaction
between the lead and acid produces electricity.
Electricity is produced when the electrolyte in a battery reacts with the lead plates
in the cells. The sulphuric acid changes the lead into lead sulphate, and, in doing
so deposits free electrons on the positive plates. These electrons cling to the
plates until a load is placed on the battery, e.g. when the ignition is turned on.
At that time the electrons move from the positive plates to the negative plates
producing electrical current.
During the charging cycle (initial charging and when installed on motorcycle) a
dry-charge battery (6N, 12N, CB) produces water vapour which escapes out of the
battery’s vent tube. Over time the accumulated water vapour loss causes the fluid
level in the battery to decrease.
To top up the battery use distilled water, do
not use electrolyte. If the fluid level falls below the LOWER LEVEL shown on the
battery casing, the electrolyte will be more concentrated, this stronger acid can
corrode the battery’s internal components and cause the battery to short out.
Free (YTX) and Gel NANO (MG) batteries are sealed units, under no circumstances
after activation should the batteries be opened or topped up with electrolyte or
This chemical process occurs in batteries that are neglected and allowed to discharge
too often without being recharged, or allowed to discharge too deeply (such as motorcycles
garaged over winter, without any attention to maintain the battery). It is also
caused when fluid levels are allowed to drop and expose the lead plates to air.
During sulphation, crystals of lead sulphate build up on the plates and prevents
efficient chemical reaction between the electrolyte and the lead plates. Lead sulphate
appears as a white coating over the plates, the damage is usually irreversible.
Sulphation can be avoided by maintaining correct fluid levels in dry charge batteries.
It is essential to monitor and recharge all types of battery regularly when it is
not in use or periods when a motorcycle is stored and unused. A faulty electrical
system on a motorcycle can also cause sulphation by not replacing the charge in
the battery lost to starting and lighting.
Charge and discharge cycle
All batteries have a limited lifespan as the cycle of charge and discharge that
a battery performs is finite due to the continual material loss from the plates
during the electro-chemical reaction. Over time a battery will lose its’ capacity,
this timescale will be less for high-usage motorcycles and vehicles.
A battery will be irreversibly damaged if it is subjected to an excessive charge
by a charger or by a faulty motorcycle electrical system. Overcharging can generate
heat which evaporates electrolyte, also damaging the plates by increased material
Dynavolt batteries are guaranteed to be free from any defect in workmanship and
materials and to be suitable for the application for which they are recommended
by the company.
Dynavolt guarantees all batteries for a full 12 months from date
of sale under the following conditions
} The battery has been well maintained during
storage and use in accordance with the charging instructions
} the battery has been
kept at a constant charge of not less than 80%
} the battery has not been overcharged
or allowed to sulphate or deep discharge